Fertilization is a highly complicated process between the egg and the sperm and includes certain successive complex interactions.
This technique is used for treatment of many reasons for infertility.
In vitro fertilization is indeed assisted reproduction. In in vitro fertilization, the female egg cell, oocyte and the male cell, sperm are fertilized outside the body in special laboratory conditions. Fertilized egg cells are called embryo. One or more of the embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization are selected and placed in the mother’s uterus.
Who are eligible for in vitro fertilization?
Infertility cases of unknown causes
Severe endometriosis cases
In vitro fertilization is generally applied after 3 or 4 failed insemination
If both tubes are blocked
If the male has low sperm count and quality
What are fertilization types?
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ISCI)
In Vitro Maturation (IVM) etc.
Hair, a symbol of youth and health for long years, starts to fall in time for various reasons. According to studies, hair loss causes psychological affects not only in men, but also in women and leads to lack of self confidence. Hair transplantation sweeps all these problems away, brings abundant hair and a much better look.
What are hair transplantation methods?
Hair transplantation is transplantation of own tissues of the person. The tissue part taken from the hair area (FUT method) or single hair follicles (FUE method) are transplanted to the hairless area. All these procedures are conducted under local anesthesia by aesthetic and plastic surgery specialists.
The patient continues his/her normal life after transplantation, provided certain rules are followed. The transplanted hair starts to fall after the first 15 days until 1 month. New hair grows as from 3 months and the person gains a better appearance.
Obesity, after smoking, has become a second preventable epidemic lethal disease in the world. As a cause of many co-morbidities, psychosocial problems in many patients and huge financial load for the treatment are main concerns in obesity. Medical management is usually not enough to loose weight in obesity. Surgery has become main part of the management of morbid obesity. During the last 60 years some surgical techniques are being used for this purpose.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion are the most commonly performed up-to-date surgical procecures. All of these could be performed laparoscopically. With the surgery; less food intake and early satiety due to gastric volume restriction and malabsorbtion due to bypass cause excess weight loss.
What are the methods used in obesity surgery?
- Sleeve Gastrectomy
- İntragastric Bypass
- Gastric Band Surgery
- Extensive Gastric Bypass
- Gastric Bypass
- Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
- Duodenal Switch Surgery
- Gastric Balloon
Aging is not stoppable. As our body ages, the appearance of our skin deteriorates. People want to have a better appearance, get younger and look confident in the mirror everyday. In the aging process, levels of Hyaluronic Acid, naturally found in the human body, drop. The skin's ability to retain water weakens and the skin loses elasticity. Combined with the loss of subskin fat tissue and gravity, a drier and saggy skin appears. Our skin loses illumination and plumpness. When we gain and lose weight, stretch marks called “stria” occur on the skin. The scars of past accidents or operations affect us psychologically. We seek for remedies in the aesthetics. When thinking about any cosmetic procedure, people generally ask “Does it hurt?” and “How long will I be hospitalized?”. In this respect, non-surgical cosmetic procedures are the best options.
What is non-surgical cosmetic?
Non-surgical cosmetic is one of the best developments of recent years in medicine and technology. We would like to note that non-surgical procedures do not hurt. You do not need to be hospitalized and lose time. For example, you can have a face lift and put on make up or shave to go to a party in the evening. If you cannot lose weight in your waist and stomach with sports and diet and are afraid of operation, non-surgical procedures might be suitable for you. You can prevent mimic lines and have a younger look with non-surgical procedures. You can remove tattoos you do not want anymore. Chemical peeling is used to remove sunspots, acne scars and wrinkles and to balance oil in the skin.
What are non-surgical cosmetic procedures?
• Gold Threads Facelift
• Laser Hair Removal
• Fractional Laser Skin Resurfacing
• Laser Tattoo Removal
• Chemical Peel
• Acne Scar Removal
• IPL Treatment
Bone marrow transplant is also called haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) as the peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood can be used as stem cell sources. Bone marrow transplant is important in treatment of many diseases in childhood including hematologic malignity, immune deficiency, haemoglobinopathy, bone marrow deficiencies and inborn errors of metabolism. Traditionally used stem cell source for hematopoietic stem cell transplant is the bone marrow. Bone marrow is harvested from the back iliac crest. The number of nuclear cells is decisive in sufficiency of the collected bone marrow.
Many centers prefer peripheral stem cells as the stem cell source in autologous transplant. The patient is administered conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplant. The patient is applied suitable chemotherapy protocols. The purpose of the conditioning regimen in hematopoietic stem cell transplant is to prepare the patient for transplant and has three separate components: "Making room in the bone marrow”, “Immunosuppression” and “Elimination of disease”. It is followed by engraftment. Unless otherwise required, patients are hospitalized for 25-30 days after bone marrow transplant. In this period, red blood and platelet transfusion is rendered. When the bone marrow is engrafted, the patient is discharged for outpatient treatment.
What are types of bone marrow transplant?
• Autologous transplant: Transplanting own stem cells to the recipient.
• Allogeneic transplant: Transplanting full match stem cells from a person, whether a relative or not, to the recipient.
• Haploidentical transplant: Transplanting among half match tissues from the first degree relatives of the recipient.
For which diseases is bone marrow transplant preferred?
• Acute myeloid leukemia
• Acute lymphocytic leukemia
• Myelodysplastic syndrome
• Sickle cell anemia
• Chronic myelocytic leukemia
• Primary immune deficiencies
• Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
• Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “not only the absence of disease or disability, but also a complete state of well being on bodily, mental and social terms”.
Aesthetic surgeries are made sometimes for health and sometimes for a better look. Physical health and beauty are always important for human beings.
Plastic reconstructive surgery covers treatment with surgery of deformities and dysfunctions, congenital or acquired, which concern almost all parts of the human body generally visible from the outside, recovery of open wounds, reassembly of torn parts or reconstruction of missing parts, treatment of skin or subcutaneous tumors, surgeries and procedures for beautification of all kinds and is generally known as aesthetic surgery or plastic surgery.
The term plastic is related to reshaping something. This reshaping procedure can only be related to appearance, or in most cases, can include correction of an impaired bodily function or elimination of a disorder.
The term reconstructive is related to remaking and reconstructing. Reconstruction of an organ or part of an organ which has been lost for various reasons or construction of an organ which is missing congenitally is among the main interests of plastic surgery.
Aesthetic, which is one of the terms used to define this specialty, is related to beauty. In aesthetic surgeries, the aim is to convert the appearance of a body part, which is indeed normal, to a shape which is perceived more beautiful by the society or in the eye of the person. This desire for transformation of the person might be a result of their desire for going back to their younger look or not being content with their current appearance.
What are aesthetic surgery interventions?
• Breast Reduction
• Breast Enlargement
• Breast Lift
• Breast Asymmetry
• Sexual Aesthetics
• Liposuction etc.
For example, Liposuction means removing excess fat with vacuum from different parts of the body. It removes fat which causes deformity in certain areas such as tummy, side hips, inner knees and belly area in men.
What are plastic, aesthetic and reconstructive surgery services?
• Hair transplantation
• Aesthetic nose operations (Rhinoplasty) Aesthetic eyelid operations
• Eyebrow lift
• Ear operations (flap ear)
• Scar revisions
• Face lifting
• Fat injection etc.
Orthodontic problems are among the tops in the important health problems list in the world. Most people are affected by at least one of these problems once in their lifetime. Although orthodontic problems are treated, as with many diseases, they generally result with tooth loss. Moreover, treatment of these diseases require advanced techniques, they are costly and cause loss of time. Today, dentists offer various solutions not only in treatment of orthodontic problems, but also in oral and dental aesthetics. Lamination, porcelain veneer, gingival adjustments, bleaching methods offer the patient a new smile.
What is periodontology?
These treatments include all gingival operations, deep curettage and papilla operation, procedures for scaling.
These treatments include canal treatment, treatment of broken tooth, tooth extraction, treatment of milk tooth and other tooth decays, preventive treatment etc. Pedodontics is known to offer treatments for the jaw and its development. This branch also offers treatments for all oral, dental and gingival diseases from infancy to childhood.
Endodontics is involved in the treatment of root canals. When these root canals deteriorate, inflammation occurs. In the treatment, initiated for the complaint of the patient, these canals are sterilized. They are refilled and the treatment is completed by the specialist.
Dental treatment covers procedures for tooth decays. Laser tooth whitening, canal treatment, filling, gingival whitening and other gingival operations are included.
Orthodontic treatment is for persons who have oral and dental disorders and have tooth gaps.
Orthodontic treatment is rendered for irregularities and deformities in teeth. Teeth are fixed with brackets and wires.
What is implant?
Implant is an artificial tooth root which is made of materials suitable for the human body and placed in the jaw bone to bring back the function and appearance of teeth which have been lost for any reason. The purpose of implant is to bring back normal contour, function, aesthetics and health of the patient
Organ transplantation means transplanting a healthy tissue or organ which is taken from a living donor or deceased donor in place of an organ which is not functioning in the body.
The purpose of organ transplant is to save the life of a patient who is at the end of his/her life due to organ failure and to improve lifetime and quality.
Organ transplant is a routine, valid and advanced treatment method in chronic organ disorders. The person who donates his/her organ is called donor.
Who can have organ transplant?
Advanced liver, kidney, heart and lung patients,
Patients who lost sight due to cornea diseases,
Diabetes patients with kidney failure,
Patients whose small intestines are significantly removed or dysfunctional,
Some blood, heart and lung diseases,
Patients who lost a significant part of skin,
Patients who lost a large part of their face cosmetically and functionally,
Patients who have significant damage in bones and tendons are eligible for tissue and organ transplant.
What are organ transplant methods?
1) Autograft: Removing a tissue or organ and placing it elsewhere in the same body.
2) Xenograft: Tissue and organ transplant between two different species.
3) Allograft: Tissue and organ transplant between two same species.
4) Isograft: Transplantation between identical twins who have identical genetic structures.
5) Split Transplantations: Sometimes, a cadaveric organ (especially liver) is shared among two receivers, generally an adult and a child.
6) Domino Transplantations: This operation is generally applied when both lungs need to be replaced (generally cystic fibrosis) and is preferred because it is technically easier to replace the lung and heart as a block. Meanwhile, as the own heart of the receiver is generally in good condition, it is transplanted to another donor.
Types of Organ Transplant
Cadaveric Organ Transplant:
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function.
If the organs of a patient who becomes brain dead while treatment is ongoing in the intensive care unit for reasons such as traffic accident, shooting, cerebral bleeding are donated, it is called cadaveric transplant and these patients are called cadaveric donors.
Living Organ Transplant
Organ is transplanted from a person who is the spouse or a relative of the patient, who has compatible tissue and blood type with the patient.
The human body is made up of cells which divide and differentiate into specific tissues. In a biological structure, germ cells and somatic cells originate from a single fertilized cell. In a healthy body, cells divide, grow and differentiate. In the end, they end their lives in a programmed death framework called apoptosis. Cancer development starts from a single cell which has mutated in multiple tissues. As with our body’s tendency to contract a disease, cancer development has genetic characteristics.Cell DNA plays a role in transfer of similarities from our parents, our behaviors and even determination of our hair and eye color. In cells which have been exposed to carcinogenic substances, x-rays or some viruses for any reason, DNA mutates and thus, a cancer cell develops. The cancer cell rapidly grows in itself and starts metastasis first in the respective tissue, then distant tissues and organs. Today, cancer follows cardiovascular diseases in the list of causes of death. Patients are generally lost because of metastasis. The most important factor in cancer cases is early and correct diagnosis. With a timely diagnosis, our specialists help recovery of many cancer patients. Especially developments in molecular biology and exploration of new treatments give hope to cancer patients.
Who develops cancer the most?
Cancer prevalence varies by age, gender, organ of origin and other environmental factors. Other than the tumor specific to childhood, the number of cancer patients increases with age. It is more common in 50s. Cancer is more common in men below 10, in women aged 20-60 and men above 60.
What are the most common types of cancer in the world?
Check-up is a scanning package to identify implicit problems which might lead to diseases in the future and take preventive measures in persons without any specific complaint. It is very important to diagnose diseases which become more common with aging. Many people who have regular check-ups can be saved from fatal illnesses with early diagnose. Despite absence of a disease or a complaint, an annual check-up can determine diseases which do not have any symptoms in the early stages and progress insidiously. With a short check-up, you can learn about your health condition, diseases in the early stage and have timely treatment with early diagnosis.
Check-up should be personalized.
No check-up is possible without a doctor’s examination. Check-up is not a process which is only comprised of tests. Information about the person’s complaint, history, personal background, family history, habits and medication, if used, to be collected during doctor's examination before these tests intends to achieve the most reliable results by adding personalized tests. Results to be collected are interpreted by specialists. Check-up programs have screening tests for cancer, suitable for the age and gender of the person.
In every check-up, blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, fever, general appearance and other vital findings are controlled, then cardiology, chest diseases, ear nose throat, neurology, dermatology, gynecology/urology, internal diseases examinations are made.
Testicle, hernia and prostate examinations are added for men, and breast and pelvic examinations are added for women.
Today, people above 65 constitute about 15 percent of the entire population on earth. This age group is also accompanied by psychiatric and bodily diseases. With aging, significant changes occur in the metabolism and production of chemical conductors in the brain. Due to these ordinary changes in the brain, partial loss is observed in mental functions such as memory, concentration, movement and perception. However, it requires a detailed examination to determine how much of this loss is natural and expected and how much of it points to a brain disease. Geriatrics is important for this reason.
What is geriatrics? What is its purpose?
Geriatrics is a branch involved in the study of health problems, diseases, social and functional lives, life qualities of patients aged 65 and older, preventive medicine practices and aging of society.
The purpose of geriatrics is to protect the health of the person, treat diseases, help them live independently and improve their life quality.
Who can apply to the geriatrics unit?
Those who are aged 65 and older, hypertension and diabetes patients already covered by internal diseases and osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, memory disorders (Alzheimer’s Disease, age related amnesia), depression, falling, fainting, nutritional disorders, pressure ulcers, multiple drug use patients, those suspected of cancer and persons who need information about preventive medicine can apply to the Geriatrics Unit.
Why 65 and above?
As all study, information and interest in geriatrics is towards people aged 65 and above, experience has been gained accordingly and this branch comprehensively examines common diseases and complications in this age group in addition to internal diseases examinations and tests. Such comprehensive examination allows for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases even before showing any symptoms.
Moreover, in this age group, disease symptoms are different than those of young and middle age groups and require geriatric knowledge for diagnosis. Geriatrics is not only about examination, diagnosis and treatment of people aged 65 and older, but also struggles to provide non-polyclinic support including home care model with the social service specialist, physiotherapist, dietitian and nurse. For all these reasons, patients aged 65 and above should apply to the geriatrics in the first place.
Radiology is using X-rays and other imaging methods for diagnosis and treatment in medicine.
Radiology is grouped into two main departments:
- Diagnostic (Diagnosis Radiology)
- Radiotherapy (Treatment Radiology)
What are radiologic tests?
1. RADIOGRAPHY: It is one of the main diagnosis methods and uses x-rays. Radiography is grouped into two:
DIRECT RADIOGRAPHY: With this method, an image is obtained by reflecting x-rays which pass the patient on a film. It is used to examine bone structures, lungs, digestive system, urinary system and breast.
CONTRAST RADIOGRAPHY: In this method, an external contrast material is added. A contrast material is administered orally or rectally and the esophagus, stomach-duodenum, large and small intestine are examined. The urinary tract can also be examined by administering contrast material intravenously (voiding cystourethrography, excretory urography, cystography). As in percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), biliary tract examinations and fistulography are among the radiography methods with contrast material.
2. ULTRASONOGRAPHY: It means converting sound energy into image using high frequency sound waves. As it does not include radiation, it is a great advantage for using in infants and pregnant women.
Ultrasonography is generally used for imaging the neck, thyroid gland, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, urinary bladder, uterus, ovaries, scrotum, testicles and prostate gland.
Doppler ultrasonography is a special form of ultrasonography. This method allows for examining blood flow, flow direction and flow rate in the vascular bed.
3. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT): Computed tomography is a diagnostic method which creates a sectional image of a certain part of the body using x-rays. With technological advancements, single section helical and multidetector CT devices significantly reduced examination times. Detailed vascular analyses and 3 dimensional images which allow for virtual endoscopic practices are obtained using thin sections obtained with multidetector CT devices. With contrast material injection only through the veins, it is possible to examine venules such as coronary veins besides other veins.
4. MAGNETIC RESONANCE (MR): Magnetic resonance is a diagnostic method which creates a sectional image using radio waves in a strong magnetic field created with large magnets. MR does not include radiation. Moreover, it is possible to examine multiple organs without administering contrast material. It can be used in pregnant women only when absolutely necessary.
5. INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY: Interventional radiology includes diagnostic procedures such as scopy, ultrasonography, CT and MR accompanied angiography and biopsy and treatment procedures such as drainage of abscess and liquid collections, stents placed for treatment of vein and canal contractions.
Orthopedics is the surgical branch which identifies and treats abnormalities in the organs that move all muscles, bones, joints and nerves in the human body.
What are the most common orthopedic complaints?
• Bone injuries in accidents
• Muscle injuries
• Elbow pain
• Neck pain
• Flat foot
• Tail end pain
• Rheumatoid pain
The most common orthopedic problem is broken bones. Orthopedists use plastering or surgery for fractures. Medicine is developing rapidly in orthopedics. Materials are being developed for solutions to lost limbs and these limbs can be repaired with external support. People are able to easily use their organs with prosthetic parts in place of cut and fractured bones.
Aging might lead to bone thinning, the complaints are referred to spinal surgery in orthopedics. The bone structure changes and bends and curves with aging. Medical supports, magnesium and calcium supports are used for solutions.
Those who are engaged in challenging sports need nutrient supports. Challenging activities might put stress on muscles and bones, rupture fibers and lead to bigger problems. In this case, an orthopedist’s assistance should be sought for.
Orthopedics determine proper treatment methods for shoulder pain, muscle loosening, sports injuries and cervical disk hernia.
Our feet carry our body. While the body flexes as a whole while walking on normal conditions, the body might be negatively affected in problematic cases. The inner curved part of the foot takes part in spring back movement. If this curve is congenitally absent, it is called flat-foot and causes problems. When the body weight is not transferred from the heel to the front, the body system will start to be damaged. Families should apply to orthopedics for flat-foot and in-toeing which are congenitally common in children. Another orthopedic disorder is in-toeing. The weight balance changes and feet start to step inwards. Besides these complaints, getting tired quickly, increased pain after walking, reduced sports activities, bone pain in the evening, pain around the heel are other reasons to apply to orthopedics.
The heart is located at the center of our chest, right below the breast bone. The heart moves blood, which carries necessary nutrients and oxygen for our body in our circulation system and is made of a very durable muscle group. In cardiovascular surgery, operations are made for heart valve diseases, coronary artery disease, vascular and congenital heart diseases. In surgery, generally the chest bone is cut at the center to reach the heart. The surgeon stops the heart to maintain heart functions and make the operation in a bloodless and still heart. The heart is stopped by connecting it to a device called heart-lung machine which undertakes the functions of the heart and lungs. This is called cardiopulmonary bypass. In some cases, the heart is not stopped as it would be more convenient to make the operation while the heart is functioning.
• Valve Surgery
• Coronary Bypass Surgery
• Coronary Bypass in Functioning Heart
• Aortic Aneurysm
• Carotid Surgery
• Peripheral Artery Disease (blockage in leg veins)
Cardiovascular Surgery in Turkey
Cardiovascular surgery started in Turkey in the 1960s, at the same time with the world. Today, it is rendered in many centers on the same success levels with developed countries. The cardiovascular system is in close relations with mainly pulmonary, renal, metabolic, cerebral system functions. In this respect, cardiovascular surgery requires a multidisciplinary team work in preoperative, operative and postoperative periods.
The most important function of our kidneys is to regulate water and salt balance of the body, clear blood from harmful wastes and ensure functioning of all organs and systems in accord. If our kidneys fail to do so, harmful substances, water and salt in various structures accumulate in our body and the chemical balance is impaired. In this case, mainly the heart and brain, and all other organs fail to function. The disease caused by dysfunction of the kidneys is called kidney failure or briefly, uremia.
Kidneys also excrete various hormones. These hormones help maintaining blood production, bone development and blood pressure on certain levels. In case of kidney failure, anemia, bone diseases and changes in blood pressure occur in addition to disorders in hormone release.
The human body has normally two kidneys, however, a healthy and sufficiently functional kidney can easily fulfill all needs of the body.
Kidney Failure Treatment
2. Peritoneal Dialysis
3. Kidney Transplant - from living or cadaveric donors.
What is dialysis?
Dialysis filters out harmful substances accumulated in blood in kidney failure, using special membranes and thus, clears the blood.
There are two types of dialysis:
1) Haemodialysis (machine dialysis)
2) Peritoneal dialysis (periton)
Today, haemodialysis is the most common treatment method for chronic kidney failure and is one of the most important medical developments of the twenty first century.
It is a system comprised of endocrine glands which excrete hormones that control various activities in our body. Different types of hormones released in this system control reproduction, metabolism, growth and development
Hormones also control our reaction to our surroundings and help providing necessary and suitable amount of energy and nutrients for our body.
Glands in the endocrine system are hypothalamus, hypophysis, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries (ovaries in women, testicles in men), suprarenal gland, fatty tissue, endothelium.
Possible diseases in disorders in the endocrine system, which controls our body in various ways:
• thyroid diseases
• metabolic disorders
• excess or deficient production of hormones
• diseases related to fat metabolism
• growth retardation (short stature)
• gland tumors
Ophthalmology is a branch involved in the study of eye diseases. Eye is one of the five sense organs. They allow us to see everything. Regular and comprehensive eye examination helps prevention of many diseases or treatment with early diagnosis. Eye examination is recommended for children from age 1.
What are eye diseases?
• Trachoma, Glaucoma
• Cornea diseases
• Retinal diseases
a. Diabetic retinopathy
b. Age related macula degeneration
c. Central retinal vein occlusion (acute)
d. Central retinal artery occlusion (acute)
e. Retina decollement (acute)
• Intraoccular inflammation (uveitis, endophthalmitis)
• Neuro-ophthalmologic diseases (optic neuropathy-acute)
• Subconjunctival bleeding
• Cornea erosion
• Foreign object
• Infections (canalicus etc.)
Thanks to advanced medicine and technology, our specialists easily diagnose any eye disease in the early stage and offer treatment options.
Gastroenterology is involved with the health and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas digestive functions.
• Burning sensation in the chest, not cardiac related
• Special intestinal diseases
• Gallbladder and bile duct stones
• Crohn’s disease
• Pancreas inflammation
• Ulcerative colitis
• Gastric bleeding
• Heartburn etc.
and other disorders related to the gastrointestinal system are treated by specialists in the gastroenterology department in Turkey.
How to diagnose?
Patients applying to the gastroenterology department are diagnosed with USG, endoscopy, ERCP, colonoscopy etc. They are treated by gastroenterologists.
Hematology is a branch of medicine involving the study of blood diseases. Treatment of a large majority of these diseases is vital. Important developments have occurred in hematology in recent years. The rate of treatability of hematologic cancers is rapidly increasing.
What are hematologic diseases?
- Anemia, bone marrow deficiency or shortened lifetime of blood cells: Insufficiency of hemoglobin, the substance which carries oxygen in the blood, is called anemia, insufficiency of white cells is called leucopenia, insufficiency of cells called thrombocyte which makes blood clots is called thrombocytopenia. Anemia and impairment of red blood cells can have various reasons. For example: Sickle cell anemia and Thalassemia.
- Multiple myeloma, Hodgkin and Non-Hodking lymphoma, acute and chronic leukemia (AML, ALL, KML, KLL), myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative diseases and other bone marrow, blood and lymph gland diseases
- Bleeding and clotting disorders: Disorders in the blood clotting mechanism, bleeding, abnormal clotting.
- Diseases related to immune system
Nephrology is involved in the study of kidney health and diseases. Nephrology examines the kidney and everything about its structure, functions and operation. Nephrology also examines the excretory system which covers the bladder and urinary tract.
What are the main diseases in nephrology?
- Kidney infection diseases such as nephrite, pyelonephritis
- Acute kidney failure
- Chronic kidney failure
- Urinary tract infections
- Hypertension (kidney induced)
Main symptoms of kidney diseases
- Main symptoms of kidney diseases include changes in micturition habits
- Changes in urine amount
- Changes in urine composition
- Symptoms caused by kidney dysfunction
Neurology is a branch of medicine involved in the study of the brain, brain stem, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system and muscle diseases and includes treatment procedures other than diagnosis and surgery. As with all branches of science, neurology has developed in years and left being a closed field.
As neurology developed, it was divided into subbranches which require separate specialty such as epilepsy, movement disorders, cerebrovascular diseases, dementia, sleep disorders.
Patients with headache, dizziness, stroke, diseases accompanied by altered mental status (epilepsy etc.), numbness in hands and feet, various muscle weaknesses should apply to the neurology polyclinic.
Diagnostic methods for neurologic patients:
• X-Ray (Direct radiography)
Neurosurgery - alias brain and nerve surgery - deals with surgical treatment of the brain and peripheral nervous system, spinal cord and spinal diseases. Neurosurgery is divided into sub-branches depending on treatment location.
Spine and Spinal Cord
• Spinal canal obstruction
• Spinal and spinal cord tumors
• Degenerative kyphosis and scoliosis
• Spinal and cervical disk hernia
• Micro surgery
• Spinal fractures
• Spinal cord injuries
• Slipped disc
Peripheral Nervous System
• Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
• Peripheral nerve anastomosis
• Pituitary tumors
• Brain tumors
• Intraventricular tumors
• Cerebellar tumors
• Spinal cord developmental disorders (congenital)
• Childhood brain tumors
• Childhood spinal cord tumors
• Cerebral hemorrhage
• Arteriovenous malformation
• Spinal fractures
• Spinal cord injuries
• Epidural hematoma
• Subdural hematoma
Gynecology is a branch involved in the female reproductive organs. Obstetrics deals with pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Together they form Obstetrics and Gynecology.
What are gynecologic diseases?
• Myoma Benign smooth muscle tumors originating from the muscle cells of the uterus are called myoma.
• Ovarian cysts general name for “fluid-filled sacs".
• Cervical disorders
• Polycystic ovary
• Pelvic inflammatory diseases
• Early pregnancy pathologies
• Ectopic pregnancy
• Molar pregnancy
• Urinary incontinence
• Uterine prolapse
• Female reproductive organ cancers
• Birth control methods
These disorders are within the scope of Gynecology.
What are obstetric problems?
• Premature rupture of membrane (preterm and term)
• Vaginal bleeding (early, late and postterm)
• Premature birth
• Deep venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis and pulmonary emboli (postpartum)
• Fetal death
• Severe anemia
• Abdominal pain, Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) identification and method
• High fever
• Birth complication:
• Fetal distress
• Emergencies induced by systemic diseases
Pediatrics deals with children’s vaccination, nutrition, mental and motor development, health and diseases from the intrauterine period to the postpartum period.
Pediatrics, divided into numerous branches in itself, offers service with specialists to our children who will be our future.
Pediatric Endocrinology controls growth disorders and hormonal balance, follows and treats diseases.
Pediatric Cardiology diagnoses and treats intrauterine cardiac failure.
Recent common learning disorders, attention deficit, epilepsy, hyperactivity, mental retardation, neuromuscular diseases are within the scope of Pediatric Neurology.
Pediatric Surgery makes all operations on patients aged 0-16.
Moreover, allergy, rash, urticaria, iron deficiency anemia, FMF - Familial Mediterranean Fever, urinary tract infections and many other disorders in children are covered by pediatrics.
Rehabilitation is a general concept which covers all stages and efforts necessary to improve life quality, adaptation and integration with their families and the society of persons who lost a part of their physical capabilities as a result of a disease or an accident.
The main purpose of rehabilitation is the ensure the patient continues to live in integrity with his/her family and the society, with the help of a patient, competent and experienced team. This team includes physical therapy and rehabilitation specialists, physiotherapists, rehabilitation nurses, psychologists, speech therapists, social service specialists and many other sub-branch specialists.
Physical therapy and rehabilitation programs are necessary after surgical procedures or plastering and splinting for orthopedic problems including fracture, dislocation, bond and ligament injuries, meniscus and bond ruptures. The aim is to bring the patient back to the normal activity level as soon as possible.
Patients who might benefit from rehabilitation:
• Congenital or acquired cerebral palsy in children
• Common loss of movement and function after fractures and orthopedic operations
• Sports injuries
• Stoke caused by brain damage and spinal cord injury
• Painful disorders which limit movement such as rheumatism
• Age related limited movement
• Spinal diseases
Stem cells are used to create healthy and functional cells in place of cells that are differentiated and severely damaged or diseased in our body and which can not be renewed naturally. The process of replacing a diseased cell called "cell therapy" with a healthy cell is similar to organ transplantation, the only difference being the transfer of the cell to an organ. Hematopoietic stem cells are the type of stem cells most commonly used today in the bone marrow, the forerunner of all blood cells. In Parkinson's disease, stem cells can be used to generate a specific type of nerve cell that secretes dopamine. Theoretically, these nerve cells will be able to regulate the patient's brain conduction and deliver treatment where it will restore function. Stem cells can work as an alternate and renewable resource for differentiated cells. In general, researchers are exploring the potential of adult, fetal, and embryonic stem cells to be a source of specific cells such as nerve cells, muscle cells, blood cells, and skin cells that are used to treat various diseases. Although it has been applied to a limited number of patients, it has also been demonstrated in the treatment of other potentially clinical diseases of stem cells (including diabetes and kidney cancer). Research is underway on new clinical applications for stem cell treatment of liver disease, coronary diseases, autoimmune and metabolic diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases (amyloidosis, etc.) and other advanced types of cancer.
Urological disorders increase with aging. Urology studies reproductive-urinary system in men and urinary system in women, follows their health and disorders and treats these diseases.
What are urologic diseases?
• Kidney cancer
• Prostate cancer
• Bladder cancer
• Kidney and urinary calculi
• Benign prostatic enlargement
• Testicular cancer
• Penile cancer
• Urethral cancer
• Overactive bladder symptoms
• Sexual dysfunctions
• Male infertility
• Urinary incontinence
• Pelvic pain
• Urologic infections
Which urologic diseases are treated with the Da Vinci robotic system in Turkey?
• Robotic Radical Prostatectomy in prostate cancer (removing the entire prostate with the help of a robot - neuroprotective)
• Robotic Radical Cystectomy +
• New Bladder Reconstruction in bladder cancer (removing the bladder with the help of a robot)
• Robotic Partial Nephrectomy in kidney cancer (Renoprotective)
• Robotic Radical Nephrectomy
• Robotic Pyeloplasty in UPJ Obstruction
• Robotic Adrenalectomy in adrenal tumors
What advantages does the Da Vinci Robotic Surgery offer?
1. Very little blood loss during operation.
2. Safe multidirectional operation in the body with multangular steady robotic arms.
3. Cosmetic advantage of surgical procedures through little holes.
4. Little amount of pain killers during hospitalization.
5. Postoperative hospitalization of 1 or 2 days, depending on the disorder.
6. Most patients go back to their routine work in the postoperative 2nd or 3rd week after radical prostate operation with the “Da Vinci Robotic Surgery”.
Surgery is one of the oldest branches of medicine and is based on repairing diseases, injuries and deformities which cannot be treated with medication or other treatment methods, or cutting and removing the diseased organ and transforming it to its suitable form.
The term surgery comes from Latin “chirurgiae” and means “handicraft”.
Surgery types are generally called with the name of the respective organ or the system. For example, goitre (thyroid gland), breast, alimentary canal (esophagus), stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, hernia, liver, gallbladder, biliary tract, endoscopic and laparoscopic surgical interventions are within the scope of general surgery.
When they are grouped by the systems, goiter surgeries, breast surgeries (tumors), esophagus, stomach, duodena, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus area surgeries: hemorrhoid, anal fissure, crack in the anus, perianal fistula, abscess in the anus, anus cancer, liver, hernia: inguinal, umbilical, femoral, stomach (reflux) hernia surgeries are within the scope of general surgery.
General Surgery aims for preventing surgery with preventive medicine in some cases.
What are types of surgery?
Gallbladder inflammation and gangrene, strangled hernia, thrombosed hemorrhoid, blocked or ruptured intestine cancer, apandicyte, etc.
Gallbladder, hernia, hemorrhoid, intestinal cancer etc.
Minimal invasive surgery:
It is based on treatment of organs by entering body cavities from small openings. Laparoscopic gallbladder, appendicitis, hernia, reflux, intestinal surgeries etc. are routine operations.